A series of photographs based on mental illnesses/psychological disorders. A psychological disorder is a pattern of thoughts, feelings, or behaviours that cause significant personal distress, significant impairment in daily life, and/or significant risk of harm, any of which is unusual for the context and culture in which it arises.
Major Depressive Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder is diagnosed when a person exhibitis constant symptoms of a major depressive episode for an extended period of time.
The symptoms include: a depressed mood most of the day, every day; an evident consistent loss of interest or pleasure in all or most daily activities; changes in weight and appetite; regular insomnia or hypersomnia; restlessness or a slowed down feeling; a persistent sense of fatigue or loss of energy; repeated feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate or excessive guilt; trouble concentrating, indecisiveness, and difficulty thinking; and recurrent thoughts of death and/or suicide.
BIPOLAR DISORDER (Manic Depression)
A mood disorder in which a person's mood is often persistently & abnormally upbeat or shifts inappropriately from upbeat to very down. Diagnosis is based on 4 types of mood episodes: major depressive episode, manic episode, mixed episode, hypomanic episode.
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE: a depressed mood most of the day, every day; an evident consistent loss of interest or pleasure in all or most daily activities; changes in weight and appetite; regular insomnia or hypersomnia; restlessness or a slowed down feeling; a persistent sense of fatigue or loss of energy; repeated feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate or excessive guilt; trouble concentrating, indecisiveness, and difficulty thinking; and recurrent thoughts of death and/or suicide. MANIC EPISODE: a period lasting over one week that involves abnormal and persistent euphoria, irritability, or an expansive mood (heightened enthusiasm for any projects or interpersonal and sexual interactions). MIXED EPISODE: a mood episode including symptoms of both manic and major depressive episodes. HYPOMANIC EPISODE: a less intense version of the moods in mania, but still significantly different from the person's usual mood and non-depressed state.
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER
Formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder, this dissociative disorder involves the presence of two or more distinct personality states or indentities (alters), each with their own characteristics and history. At least two of the alters take turns controlling the individual's behaviour. The individual does not recall any of the events or important personal information relating to a different personality state or identity.
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER
Antisocial personality disorder is the persistent disregard for or violation of the rights or others (without a manic or psychotic episode). They may be deceitful for personal profit or pleasure, impulsive, fail to plan ahead, irritable and aggresive, constantly irresponsible, and have a reckless disregard for their own safety and the safety of others. They have no remorse fot their actions and their consequences.
Individuals fail to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviours, often performing acts that are grounds for arrest. Approximately 60% of the world's male prisoners have this disorder, and it is a common trait in serial killers.
BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER
Volatile emotions, unstable self-image, and impulsive behaviour in relationships. - frantic efforts to avoid abandonment. - pattern of unstable & intense interpersonal relationships - alters between extremes of idealisation & devaluation. - identity disturbance. - potentially self-damaging impulsivity. - suicidal behaviour & self-mutilation. - affective instability due to marked reactivity of mood; chronic empty feeling; inappropriate, intense anger. - transient, stress-related paranoia.
DEPENDANT PERSONALTY DISORDER
An anxious personality disorder characterised by submissive and clingy behaviours based on fear of separation, and the need to be taken care of.
Individuals have difficulty making every day decisions and starting tasks alone without excessive advice and reassurance from others. They require others to take responsibility for most aspects of their life and will go to serious lengths to gain nurturance and support from others, even volunteering to do unpleasant things.
NARCISSISTIC & HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER
NARCISSISTIC: inflated sense of importance, excessive desire to be admired, lack of empathy. - often exaggerates achievements & talents - requires excessive admiration - takes advantage of others - has sense of entitlement
HISTRIONIC: Attention-seeking behaviours, exaggerated & inflated displays of emotion. - must be centre of attention - interacts with others in inappropriate sexual or provocative manners - rapidly shifting & shallow expression of emotions - uses physical appearance to draw attention to oneself - self-dramatisation, theatricality, exaggeration
AVOIDANT PERSONALITY DISORDER
An anxious personality disorder characterised by extreme social inhibition, usually stemming from feeling inadequate, inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others, as well as being overly sesitive to negative evaluation.
Individuals are often inhibited in relationships and avoid social activities due to fear of criticism, disapproval, embarassment, ridicule, shame, and/or rejection. They are unwilling to get involved with people unless they are certain they will be likes, and are usually reluctant to take personal risks or engage in new activities.
PARANOID PERSONALITY DISORDER
Persistent and pervasive mistrust and suspiciousness, along with a bias to read other people's motives as being hostile.
They suspect that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them, and constantly doubt the loyalty and trustworthiness of friends and other relations without any justified reason. They are reluctant to confide in others for fear of betrayal or having the information used against them. Innocent remarks or occurrences are often perceived as threats or attacks, leading to angry reactions and grudges.
A form of schizophrenia (a psychotic disorder), characterised by auditory hallucinations and delusions that are limited to specific topics that generally have one or more of the following themes:
PARANOID: believing they are being persecuted or having someone or something pursuing them. CONTROL: believing they are being controlled by others, who are putting thoughts into the individual's head. GRANDEUR: believing they are more powerful, knowledgable, or influential than they really are.
A form of schizophrenia characterised by catatonic poses, bizzare jerky movements, frozen facial expressions, may not speak, may repeat words or phrases said by others without realising, or mimic bodily movements.
Sufferers may exhibit flat affect - a lack of emotion or body language, and avoiding eye contact. They also may have difficulty in beginning or following through with activities. A sufferer may sit in a chair all day, staring at nothing.
Characterised by disorganised speech & behaviour, and inappropriate emotional expression. Giggling, strange dress, obscene or incoherent speech.
They may not realise others can not understand their incoherent speech and random words. Their behaviours are often very unfocused and disconnected from a purpose that they are unable to complete basic tasks.
A somatoform disorder characterised by misinterpretations of bodily sensations and symptoms, leading to the belief that one has a serious illness despite no medical evidence of one. Individuals will often disregard or refuse to believe reassurance from medical professionals regarding the absence of illness.
SOCIAL PHOBIA (SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER)
An intense fear of public humiliation or embarrassment, which leads to avoiding social situations likely to cause fear. Social situations can cause anxiety or panic, which can lead to panic attacks(a sudden onset of intense worry, fear, terror, and feelings of impending doom, with shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain/discomfort, choking/smothering sensations, numbness & tingling, dizziness or faintness, and a general fear of losing control). Recurrent panic attacks may develop into panic disorder, with the fear of attacks causing one to restrict their behaviour to avoid or prevent the possibility of a future panic attack.